Wednesday, March 22, 2017

C1 21/3/17

dysfunctional /dɪsˈfʌŋkʃ ə n ə l/ adjective formal
not behaving, working, or happening in the way that most people think is normal
a dysfunctional family/childhood

belated /bɪˈleɪtɪd/ adjective
coming late, or later than expected
a belated attempt to win votes
belatedly adverb
Supermarkets have belatedly realized the purchasing power of mothers.

Belated happy birthday / Name Day….

superb /suːˈpɜːb/ adjective
a superb performance/restaurant
superbly adverb

Text about loo roll dispensers (check moodle platform)


flush sth away/down/out, etc
to get rid of something by pushing it somewhere with lots of water, such as down a toilet

/ˈmæsɑːdʒ/ /məˈsɑːdʒ/
diarrhoea UK ( US diarrhea ) /ˌdaɪəˈrɪə/ noun [ U ]
[ HEALTH ] an illness in which your solid waste is more liquid than usual, and comes out of your body more often.
exhort /ɪgˈzɔːt/ verb [ T ] formal
to strongly encourage/ɪnˈkʌrɪdʒ/ someone to do something
exhortation /ˌegzɔːˈteɪʃ ə n/ noun [ C , U ]

teethe /tiːð/ verb
1 be teething
If a baby is teething, it is getting its first teeth.
2 teething problems/troubles
problems that happen because something is new and has not been done before
As with all projects, there were a few teething troubles.

Netizens- citizens on the net

raid 1 /reɪd/ noun [ C ]
Word partners for raid
carry out a raid • a raid on sth • an air raid • a dawn raid
1 SOLDIERS a sudden attack on a place by soldiers
an air raid
a dawn raid
2 POLICE a sudden visit to a place by police in order to find someone or something
a police raid to recover illegal weapons
3 STEAL when people enter a place by force in order to steal from it
a bank raid
See also: air raid

pledge 1 /pledʒ/ noun [ C ]
Word partners for pledge (noun)
break / fulfil / make a pledge • a pledge on sth
a serious promise
[ + to do sth ] a pledge to create jobs
He made a solemn pledge to the American people.

wastage /ˈweɪstɪdʒ/ noun [ U ]
when you waste something
fuel wastage

maintenance /ˈmeɪnt ə nəns/ noun [ U ]
Word partners for maintenance
carry out maintenance • high / low maintenance • maintenance of sth
1 WORK the work that is done to keep something in good condition
car maintenance
I want a garden that's very low maintenance (= easy to look after) .
2 MONEY [ FINANCE ] UK regular amounts of money that someone must pay after they have left their family so that the family still has money to live
child maintenance

Tuesday, March 14, 2017

C1 13-14/3/17

Homework: Reading activity p. 86

p. 83

AS WELL AS is one of the most frequent, still most misused, conjunction in administrative and academic texts. There are two mistakes commonly made regarding its use.
Two common problems
There are two common problems with the use of as well as. The first one relates to its meaning — as well as is often used as a synonym for and, which it is not.
Swedish is spoken in Sweden, as well as in parts of Finland. [incorrect]
The second problem concerns the form of the verb following as well as.  Can you find the mistakes in the following sentences?
John, as well as Mary, want to drop the course. [incorrect]
Running is healthy as well as it makes you feel good. [incorrect]
Sarah draws as well as designs clothes.
As well as is not a synonym for and
As well as cannot be used to mean and. The expression X as well as Y  means not only Y but also X (note that X and Y are reversed). While and simply conjoins two (or more) expressions, as well as places unequal emphasis on the two expressions — the expression preceding as well as carries a stronger emphasis than the expression following it.
John, as well as Mary, came to the party. [not only Mary but also John; emphasis on John]
The programme aims to recruit Sami students as well as students from other countries. [not only students from other countries but also Sami students; emphasis on Sami students]
Now you see that the sentence:
Swedish is spoken in Sweden, as well as in parts of Finland. [incorrect]
Swedish is spoken not only in parts of Finland, but also in Sweden. [Imagine! What a surprise!]
It is therefore wrong to use as well as simply in order to avoid a repetition of and, as in the sentence below.
The university focuses on education, research and development, as well as dissemination. [incorrect if all three areas are equally important and none is to be emphasized]
as well as does not make subjects plural
In the sentence
John, as well as Mary, want to drop the course. [incorrect]
the verb want must agree with the noun preceding as well as in this case.
John, as well as Mary, wants to drop the course. [correct]
In other words, when as well as is part of the subject, the verb must agree with the noun before as well as.
Verbs after as well as come in –ing form
When we put a verb after as well as, we use the -ing form of the verb. (This might sound really strange to a non-native speaker, but the grammar books agree on this.)
Running is healthy as well as making you feel good.
He broke the window, as well as destroying the wall.
She draws as well as designing clothes.
Note the difference between the last sentence and the next one:
She draws as well as she designs clothes.
[Her drawing is as good as her designing]

DESPITE /dɪˈspaɪt/ ●●● S3 W1 AWL preposition  
1 used to say that something happens or is true even though something else might have prevented it
syn in spite of 
Despite all our efforts (N) to save the school, the authorities decided to close it.
despite the fact (that) 
She went to Spain despite the fact that her doctor had told her to rest (CL).
2 → despite yourself
GRAMMAR: Patterns with despite
• You say despite doing (–ING V) something:
He won despite being injured.
• You say despite the fact that:
He won despite the fact that he was injured.
Don’t say: He won despite he was injured.
• Don’t confuse despite and in spite of.
Don’t say: despite of

down the drain
if time, effort, or money goes down the drain, it is wasted or produces no results
Well that’s it. 18 months’ work down the drain.

ˈOWING TO ●○○ preposition  formal because of something
Owing to a lack of funds, the project will not continue next year.
Flight BA213 has been delayed owing to fog.
Examples from the Corpus
owing to•
The new resource represented welcome revenue for a local government feeling a financial pinch owing to a temporary local economic downturn.
• The Springboks had to make a major alteration at half-time owing to an injury to Van Straaten.
• Wild fluctuations in brain activity owing to changing environmental conditions would thus put the rest of the body at severe risk.
• The stellar sphere, owing to its vast distance from earth, needed no epicycles because its movement appeared regular and unchanging.
• The elements may also be transformed from one into another, owing to the fundamental qualities inherent in each.
• Cyanosis and flushing occur during the tonic phase, owing to the sustained contraction of respiratory muscles and cessation of breathing.

com‧ple‧tion /kəmˈpliːʃən/

mass –

Harold Shipman

We’ve been talking with Nathan about History. One of the things we mentioned was Jack the Ripper. For more about it check the paper on the Moodle Platform.

south‧ern, Southern /ˈsʌðən $ -ərn/

jinxed /dʒɪŋkst/ adjective 
often having bad luck, or making people have bad luck
They seem to be jinxed when it comes to playing in the UK.
Who was Jimmy Savile?
In his lifetime, millions knew Jimmy Savile as an eccentric TV personality.
He was one of Britain's biggest stars, a larger-than-life character who was known for tea time TV favourites such as Top of the Pops and Jim'll Fix It, as well as stints on BBC Radio 1.
He was also, to some, Saint Jimmy, a diligent fundraiser who raised £40m for charity.
But, a year after his death in 2011, allegations of abuse surfaced.
It transpired that he was, in fact, one of the UK's most prolific sexual predators.
He had been exploiting his status to prey on hundreds of people - girls and boys, men and women, but mostly vulnerable young females.

scapegoat /ˈskeɪpgəʊt/ noun [ C ]
someone who is blamed for a bad situation, although they have not caused it
He was made a scapegoat for the disaster.


  algorithm     /ælgərɪð ə m/   noun   [ C ]
[ MATHEMATICS ]  a set of rules used to calculate an answer to a mathematical problem


Affected the Roman Empire so badly
Right in thinking
Grew much more quickly
Caused a lot of animals to die
The decline of the
chain /tʃeɪn/ noun
EVENTS [ C ] a series of things that happen one after the other
His arrival set off a surprising chain of events.
As a proper Ice Age
Crops failed
Trouble maker

Monday, March 13, 2017

C1 8-9/3/17

ˈhay ˌfever noun [uncountable] 
a medical condition, like a bad cold that is caused by breathing in pollen (=dust from plants)

cy‧press /ˈsaɪprɪs/

an‧ti‧his‧ta‧mine /ˌæntɪˈhɪstəmiːn, -mɪn/ noun [countable, uncountable] 
a drug that is used to treat an allergy (=an unpleasant reaction to particular foods, substances etc)

Check the following activities in our Moodle platform:

·       International Women's Day
·       Witty comebacks to sexist banter

ˌmale ˈchauvinist noun [countable] 
a man who believes that men are better than women and has fixed traditional ideas about the way men and women should behave – used to show disapproval
I’m afraid Bill’s a bit of a male chauvinist.
male chauvinist pig (=an insulting name for a male chauvinist)

dodge /dɒdʒ $ dɑːdʒ/ ●○○ verb 
1 [intransitive, transitive] to move quickly to avoid someone or something
He ran across the courtyard, dodging a storm of bullets.
dodge between/through/into etc
Helen clutched Edward’s arm as they dodged through the traffic.

Dodgeball (game)

co‧ex‧ist‧ence /ˌkəʊɪɡˈzɪstəns $ ˌkoʊ-/ noun [uncountable]  when two different things or groups of people exist together at the same time or in the same placeco
existence of
the coexistence of two systems of measurement over 50 years of peaceful coexistence

be in bad/poor etc taste (=likely to offend people)
She acknowledged her remark had been in bad taste

Tuesday, March 07, 2017

C1 6-7/3/17

Homework: reading activity p. 82 and also the grammar review p.80

whup /wʌp/ (also whop) verb (past tense and past participle whupped, present participle whupping) [transitive] informal especially American English 
1 to defeat someone easily in a sport or fight
 I’m gonna whup your ass (=defeat you very easily).
2 to hit someone and hurt them very badly, especially using something such as a belt

ex•pa•tri•ate /ɛksˈpeɪtriɪt/USA pronunciation   adj. 
1.  dwelling in a foreign land:The expatriate community, mostly British and Americans, was invited to the ambassador's residence.

ar‧cher‧y /ˈɑːtʃəri $ ˈɑːr-/
cav‧al‧ry /ˈkævəlri/
Genghis Khan (/ˈdʒɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/, usually pronounced /ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/was the founder and Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.

aim 1 /eɪm/ noun
Word partners for aim
achieve your aim • sb's/sth's main / ultimate aim • the aim of sth • with the aim of doing sth
1 [ C ] the purpose of doing something, and what you hope to achieve
The aim of the film was to make people laugh.
[ + of + doing sth ] He went to Paris with the aim of improving his French.
2 sb's aim
someone's ability to hit an object by throwing something or shooting at something
3 take aim
to point a weapon towards someone or something

bull's-eye /ˈbʊlzˌaɪ/USA pronunciation  
n.[countable], pl.  -eyes.
Games->the circular spot at the center of a target.

the cavalry /ˈkæv ə lri/ noun [ U , group ]
soldiers who fight on horses

con‧tig‧u‧ous /kənˈtɪɡjuəs/ adjective formal 
next to something, or next to each other
America’s 48 contiguous states

char‧i‧ot /ˈtʃæriət/ noun [countable] 
a vehicle with two wheels pulled by a horse, used in ancient times in battles and races

ruth‧less /ˈruːθləs/ ●○○ adjective 
1 so determined to get what you want that you do not care if you have to hurt other people in order to do it
a ruthless dictator
They have shown a ruthless disregard for basic human rights.

push somebody/something with force [transitive always + adverb/preposition]
to force someone or something to move in a particular direction
The windsurfer was swept out to sea. Jessie was swept along by the angry crowd.

crush /krʌʃ/ ●●○ verb [transitive] 
1 to press something so hard that it breaks or is damaged
His leg was crushed in the accident.
Two people were crushed to death in the rush to escape.

scat‧ter /ˈskætə $ -ər/ ●●○ verb [intransitive, transitive] 
1 if someone scatters a lot of things, or if they scatter, they are thrown or dropped over a wide area in an irregular way
scatter (something) over/around/across etc something
Scatter the onions over the fish.
The flowers fell and scattered on the ground.
2 if a group of people or animals scatter, or if something scatters them, they move quickly in different directions
The sound of gunfire made the crowd scatter in all directions.

crush noun 
 [countable] a strong feeling of romantic love for someone, especially one that a young person has for someone older who they do not know well → infatuation
She had a huge crush on her geography teacher.
It’s just a schoolgirl crush.

tails /teɪlz/ noun [ plural ]
1 COIN the side of a coin that does not have someone's head on it
Let's toss a coin - heads or tails?
2 COAT a formal coat that has a short front part and a long back part that is divided in two

even /ˈiːv ə n/ adjective
NUMBER [ MATHEMATICS ] An even number is a number which can be exactly divided by two, for example four, six, or eight.
The opposite is odd

de‧flate /ˌdiːˈfleɪt, dɪ-/ verb 
1 [intransitive, transitive] if a tyre, balloon etc deflates, or if you deflate it, it gets smaller because the gas inside it comes out opp inflate → go down, let down

a flat tyre (=one which the air has come out of)I had a flat tyre and had to walk home.

Abolished slave trade

wire‧tap‧ping /ˈwaɪətæpɪŋ $ ˈwaɪr-/ noun [uncountable] 
the action of secretly listening to other people’s telephone conversations, by connecting something to the wires of their telephone
—wiretap noun [countable]
—wiretap verb [transitive]


hungry hippos
simon game
spin like a top->
to spin or turn round very quickly The impact of the blow sent me spinning like a top.
Par‧chee‧si /pɑːˈtʃiːzi $ pɑːr-/ noun [uncountable]  trademark American English
a children’s game in which you move a small piece of plastic around a board after throwing dice
ludo /ˈluːdəʊ/ n
1.  Brit a simple board game in which players advance counters by throwing dice

tear /tɪə $ tɪr/ ●●● S2 W3 noun 
1 [countable usually plural] a drop of salty liquid that comes out of your eye when you are crying
The children were all in tears.
She came home in floods of tears.
I could see that Sam was close to tears.
Bridget suddenly burst into tears and ran out.
He was fighting back tears as he spoke.
A lot of people were moved to tears by his story.
He kissed her cheek, a gesture that brought tears to her eyes.
I must admit I shed a few tears when the school closed.
I saw grown men reduced to tears that day.
‘Please don’t talk like that, ’ Ellen implored him, her eyes filling with tears.
By this time, tears were streaming down my face.
The tears he shed were tears of joy.

Archaeological dig
Didn’t have much of a childhood
The accepted view
Sent them off to work
Providers for the household
Much shorter working lives
A harsh view
Having said that
Retrieving objects
Emotional bonds
Struck gold
Regardless of what they tell us about...
3 legged stool
Going on tour around the country...

harsh /hɑːʃ $ hɑːrʃ/ very uncomfortable syn severe The hostages are being held in harsh conditions.
harsh winter/weather/climate
the harsh Canadian winters a young girl suddenly exposed to the harsh realities of life
2 treatment/criticism severe, cruel, or unkindharsh criticism/treatment/punishment etc
His theory met with harsh criticism from colleagues. the harsh measures taken against the protesters
‘She’s an idiot!’ ‘Aren’t you being a bit harsh?’
a harsh authoritarian regime
He had harsh words (=severe criticism) for the Government.

re‧trieve /rɪˈtriːv/ ●○○ verb [transitive] 
1 formal to find something and bring it back → recover
She bent down to retrieve her earring.
retrieve something from something
It took four days to retrieve all the bodies from the crash.

Resultado de imagen de spiderman hit the jackpot

Miss the boat
to be too late to get what you want
I'm afraid you've missed the boat.
All the tickets have been sold.

blow it/your chance(s) informal
If you blow it or blow your chance, you lose an opportunity to do something by doing or saying the wrong thing.
I blew it when I criticized the way she ran the office.
Tom blew his chances of getting the job by arriving late for the interview.

cypress [links]

Also in Moodle:

The pronunciation of the –ED suffix in verbs and adjectives.
The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in -ed. For example:
work, worked, worked
In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed. For example:
I like painted furniture.
The question is, how do we pronounce the -ed? The answer is, in 3 ways:
/ɪd/ If the base verb ends in one of these sounds: /t/ or /d/
       /t/  want      wanted   /d/     end     ended
Unvoiced     /t/ When we find the following final sounds
/p/  hope      hoped   
/f/  laugh     laughed
/s/  fax  faxed
/ʃ/  wash      washed
/ʧ/ watch     watched
/k/  like  liked
Voiced /d/all other sounds,
eg   play played   
allow      allowed
beg begged
*Note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, fax ends in the letter x but the sound /s/; like ends in the letter e but the sound /k/.
Pronunciation of some adjectives ending in -ed
The thing is that some adjectives ending in -ed have a special pronunciation and the -ed is not pronounced /t/ or /d/  but /id/. Let’s have a look at them.
The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /ɪd/:


To make matters worse, aged is pronounced /eɪdʒd/ when it means years old (my grandmother, aged 93, is a very smart person) or when it is a verb but, when it is an adjective it is pronounced |eɪdʒid/.
All the young men went to fight in the war; and only the aged /eɪdʒid/ and infirm remained behind.
Other adjectives ending in -ed   follow the rule for the pronunciation of the -ed ending, ie, pronounced /id/ only after /d/ ot /t/.