Monday, December 11, 2017

NB2 11/12/17

Podcast del día:
Amigos ingleses (youtube)

I’m happy that you like it

p. 61

strict /strɪkt/ UK  US  adjetivo
1 estricto -a [padres, profesor, etc.]

p. 62

aunt /ɑːnt/ UK  US  sustantivo

daughter /ˈdɔːtə/ UK  US  sustantivo

crutch /krʌtʆ/ UK  US  sustantivo (plural -ches)
1 muleta
She was  on crutches.
Iba con muletas.

2 brothers, she is the middle one
1.-28 Neil teacher
2.-19 Tim studying Chemistry second year university.
Go out with his cousin and his girlfriend for a drink.
Are they visiting? No, English (Uncle Gerogio and Ruth met there
He is 19, 1 year younger.
12 cousins in Italy, 9 aunts and uncles, her father has 8 brothers and sisters
Married, 30 years next year. Wife –nurse. Son Ted jr, college, medicine.

Grammar: short answers

Are you tired? Yes, I am
Do you speak Chinese?  No, I don’t
Can you swim? Yes , I can

eightieth /ˈeɪtiəθ/ UK  US  número

1 octogésimo -a

NA2 11/12/17

p. 36 & 37

conˈveyor belt noun [countable] 
a long continuous moving band of rubber, cloth, or metal, used in a place such as a factory or an airport to move things from one place to another
 We lifted our baggage from the conveyor belt.

Orienteering is a group of sports that requires navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed. Participants are given a topographical map, usually a specially prepared orienteering map, which they use to find control points.[1]


I’ve been to Madrid


slaughter /ˈslɔːtə $ ˈslɒːtər/ ●○○ verb [transitive] 
1 to kill an animal, especially for its meat
2 to kill a lot of people in a cruel or violent way SYN butcher
 Hundreds of innocent civilians had been slaughtered by government troops.

skin verb (skinned, skinning) [transitive] 
1 to remove the skin from an animal, fruit, or vegetable → peel
 Add the tomatoes, skinned and sliced.
2 to hurt yourself by rubbing off some skin SYN graze
 She fell and skinned her knee.


4 CHICKEN [transitive] to pull the feathers off a dead chicken or other bird before cooking it

NB1 11/12/17

p. 15

He plays tennis
He has brown hair and brown eyes
He is tall and he has brown eyes
His eyes and hair are brown
No idea
A beard
He is 29 and he sings love stories
He is... his name
He sings very well
He is an actor in the films Robin Hood and Titanic.
He’s a new Spanish polititian
He has long hair, a brown beard and a moustache.
He worked for many years as a university professor
A 18 year old student
This student is 18 years old
He is a famous singer
He is Spanish –
 he is a Spanish man
8 /eit/
He writes his own songs
His most famous song is 19 days and 500 nights /naits/
He always wears a hat
He lives in
He is tall and slim
Grey hair
I think he is about 80

p. 16

hungry /ˈhʌŋgri/ UK  US  adjetivo (-rier, -riest)
1 to be hungry tener hambre
I'm hungry, let's eat.
I have hungry
Tengo hambre, vamos a comer.
2 hambriento -a
hungry children
niños hambrientos

I’m hot /  cold / thirsty…

tired /taɪəd/ UK  US  adjetivo
1 cansado -a
tired out agotado -a
I’m tired

sad /sæd/ UK  US  adjetivo (-dder, -ddest)
1  triste
I’m sad

thirstyθɜːsti/ UK  US  adjetivo (-tier, -tiest)
sediento -a
to be thirsty tener sed
I’m thirsty

worried /ˈwʌrid/ UK  US  adjetivo
 preocupado -a
to be worried about sth/sb estar preocupado -a por algo/alguien
I’m worried (about you)

happy /ˈhæpi/ UK  US  adjetivo (-ppier, -ppiest)
1 feliz
I’m happy

stressed /strest/, también stressed out UK  US  adjetivo
estresado -a
I’m stressed

I have a cold ↓ ≠ I’m cold


How are you?

I’m bored

Song: please don't go

(don't) open the book 

babe- baby
gonna - going to
beg /beg/ UK  US  verbo (-gged, -gging)
1  [transitivo] rogarle a
I'm  begging  you  for  help.
Te ruego que me ayudes.

Tuesday, December 05, 2017

NI2 5/12/17

El "past perfect" hace referencia a un tiempo anterior al pasado reciente. Se emplea para señalar que un evento ocurrió antes que otro en el pasado. No importa cuál de los eventos se mencione primero, porque el tiempo verbal deja claro el orden temporal en que acontecieron.
En estos ejemplos, el Evento A es el que primero ocurrió y el Evento B tuvo lugar a continuación, es el más reciente:
Evento A
Evento B
John had gone out
when I arrived in the office.
Evento A
Evento B
had saved my document
before the computer crashed.
Evento B
Evento A
When they arrived
we had already started cooking.
Evento B
Evento A
He was very tired
because he hadn't slept well.

     I had not [hadn’t] visited the Louvre before so I didn’t know where the Mona Lisa was.(No había visitado el Museo del Louvre antes, así que no sabía donde estaba la Mona Lisa.)
     They had not [hadn’t] studied English before they went to London.(No habían estudiado inglés antes de irse a Londres.)
     Henry changed careers even though he had not [hadn’t] worked as an accountant for long.(Henry cambió de profesión a pesar de que no había trabajado como contable durante mucho tiempo.)

ˌfed ˈup adjective 
informal annoyed or bored, and wanting something to change
 She felt tired and a bit fed up.
fed up with
 I’m really fed up with this constant rain.
 Anna got fed up with waiting.

surprised /səˈpraɪzd $ sər-/ ●●● S2 W2 adjective 
having a feeling of surprise
 He looked surprised to see Cassie standing by the front door.
surprised at/by
- We were greatly surprised at the news.
surprised (that)
- She was surprised that no one was there to greet her.

pleased /pliːzd/ ●●● S2 W3 adjective 
1 happy or satisfied
 Your dad will be so pleased.
pleased by something
 She seemed pleased by the compliment.
pleased about something
 I could tell they were pleased about the news.
pleased with something
 Gwinn was pleased with the results.
pleased for somebody
 That’s wonderful! I’m really pleased for you.
pleased (that)
 Her mother was pleased that she chose a college close to home.
pleased to hear/see/report etc
 I’m pleased to tell you that you’ve got the job.

guilty ɡɪlti/ ●●● S2 W3 adjective 
1 ASHAMED feeling very ashamed and sad because you know that you have done something wrong
guilty about/for/at
- I feel really guilty about forgetting her birthday again.
- She looked self-conscious and guilty.
- It was his guilty conscience that made him offer to help.
In everyday English, people often say that they feel bad about something rather than say that they feel guilty about it:
I feel bad about leaving him on his own.
2 OF A CRIME having done something that is a crime OPP innocent
guilty of
- The jury found her guilty of murder.
- He was found not guilty of the death of PC Jones.
- He pleaded guilty to two charges of theft.

stressful /ˈstresfəl/ ●○○ AWL adjective 
a job, experience, or situation that is stressful makes you worry a lot
 Moving to a new house is a very stressful experience.

-ed adjectives
Adjectives that end ‘-ed’ describe emotions – they tell us how people feel about something.
  • I was very bored in the maths lesson. I almost fell asleep.
  • He was surprised to see Helen. She’d told him she was going to Australia.
  • He was feeling tired and depressed, so he went to bed.
-ing adjectives
Adjectives that end ‘-ing’ describe the thing that causes the emotion – a boring lesson makes you feel bored.
  • Have you seen that film? It’s absolutely terrifying.
  • I could listen to him for hours. He’s one of the most interesting people I’ve ever met.
  • I can’t eat this! It’s disgusting! What is it?

Estar –ed
Ser –ing

p. 105
My grandmother died 3 days before turning 100.
AGE/TIME [transitive] to become a particular age, or to reach a particular time
somebody turns 15/20/40 etc
- My son’s just turned 18.
it’s turned 2 o'clock/5/midday etc
- It’s just turned three.

p. 106

intense /ɪnˈtens/ UK  US  adjetivo
1 intenso -a [dolor, calor]
with intense interest con sumo interés

2 intenso -a, fuerte [emoción]

3 vehemente [persona]

compliment /ˈkɒmplɪmənt/ UK  US  sustantivo
1 cumplido, piropo
to pay sb a compliment hacerle un cumplido a alguien, echarle un piropo a alguien

When people take advantage of you

When people are not loyal and don’t respect you.

NA2 5/12/17

p. 40

comˌputer-ˈliterate adjective 
able to use a computer
 Nowadays, all graduates are computer-literate.

computer literate/musically literate etc
able to use computers, understand and play music etc

ˈknow-how noun [uncountable] informal 
knowledge, practical ability, or skill to do something
- those who have the know-how to exploit the technology to the fullest
- the know-how needed by today’s practising lawyer
- No other company had the technical know-how to deal with the disaster.
- I have the know-how to use computers.

Average user
make do
to manage with the things that you have, even though this is not really enough
- I hardly had any food in the house so I just had to make do.
make do with/without
- I usually make do with a cup of coffee for breakfast.
 For many people, make do and mend (=when someone manages with the things they have and does not buy anything new) was a harsh reality
proficient /prəˈfɪʃənt/ adjective 
able to do something well or skilfully
proficient in/at
- Martha’s proficient in Swedish.
- There’s only one way to become proficient at anything – practice!
 a proficient typist

willing helper/volunteer/partner etc
someone who is eager to help etc and does not have to be persuaded
 I soon had an army of willing helpers.

eager /ˈiːɡə $ -ər/ ●●○ adjective 
1 very keen and excited about something that is going to happen or about something you want to do
eager to do something
- I was eager to get back to work as soon as possible.
- He’s a bright kid and eager to learn.
- She’s a very hard worker and very eager to please.

ˈweb ˌbrowser UK  US  sustantivo
navegador [en informática]

spreadsheet /ˈspredʃiːt/ ●○○ noun [countable] 
1 a computer program that can show and calculate financial information
2 a document that contains rows and columns of numbers that can be used to calculate something

screen·shot /ˈskriːnʃɒt $ -ʃɑːt/ (also screen capture) noun [countable] technical 
a picture of what is on a computer screen at a particular time, which can be saved and put into a document or printed out

give me a hand
having trouble
make directions
the trouble is
what shall I do then?

Do a search

NI1 5/12/17


This winter is being very cold. In fact, it’s freezing!
Today it’s freezing cold.
I’m / was amazed! I’ve never seen / I had never seen an elephant before.
I’m positive I’ll pass the exam.

positive /ˈpɒzətɪv/ UK  US  adjetivo
1 positivo -a
2 segurísimo -a
"Are you sure it was him?" "Positive."
–¿Estás seguro de que fue él? –Segurísimo.
to be positive about sth/that estar seguro -a de algo/de que

freezing /ˈfriːzɪŋ/ UK  US  adjetivo & sustantivo
 •  adjetivo
1  (informal) I'm/he's etc freezing! ¡estoy/está etc helado!
it was/it is etc freezing hacía/hace etc un frío terrible

I’m terrified of spider just by seeing them.

terrified /ˈterɪfaɪd/ UK  US  adjetivo
aterrorizado -a
I'm terrified of heights/spiders etc las alturas/las arañas etc me dan pánico

They look so funny together. She's really tiny and her husband's about six foot five.

five/six etc feet
En inglés la altura de las personas y de los objetos a menudo se expresa en pies ( feet o  foot, abreviado  ft.  o con el símbolo  ') y pulgadas ( inches, abreviado  ins., o con el símbolo ").
five foot seven/five feet seven/5 ft. 7 ins./5' 7" (cinco pies y siete pulgadas) equivalen a 1,70m, six foot/six feet (seis pies) equivalen a 1,80m

pound /paʊnd/ UK  US  sustantivo & verbo
 •  sustantivo
1 (unidad de peso) libra [= 0,45 kg]
2 (moneda) libra
a five pound_ note
un billete de cinco libras

Fah‧ren‧heit /ˈfærənhaɪt/ noun [uncountable](written abbreviation F)  a scale of temperature in which water freezes at 32° and boils at 212° 
72° Fahrenheit (=72 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale)

p. 113
happy to do something 
John will be so happy to see you.
GRAMMAR: Patterns with happy
• You are happy to do something or happy to be doing something:
I’m very happy to be here.
Don’t say: I’m very happy for being here.
• You are happy that something has happened or is true:
I’m very happy that I’m here.
• You are happy about something:
I’m so happy about your engagement.
Don’t say: I’m so happy for your engagement.
• You are happy for someone when something good has happened to them:
Congratulations – I’m happy for you.

mind doing something 
Did you mind being away from home for so long?

good at (doing) something 
Alex is very good at languages. 
She’s good at making things.
good with
As a politician, you need to be good with words(=skilful at using words). 
He’s very good with people (=skilful at dealing with people).

p. 114

thought /θɔːt/

isle /aɪl/ UK  US  sustantivo
 ▶ Este vocablo se usa solo en contextos literarios o como parte de los nombres de algunas islas, p. ej.  the Scilly Isles

island /ˈaɪlənd/ UK  US  sustantivo
They live on a small island.
Viven en una pequeña isla.

adorable /əˈdɔːrəbəl/ UK  US  adjetivo
adorable, encantador -a

stressed, changed

I’ve been, English, don’t, trip, being, to, message, I’ll send them (promise),

viaje sustantivo
1 trip
un viaje al extranjero
a trip abroad
Ganaron un viaje a Port Aventura.
They won a trip to Port Aventura.
 ▶ También existe el término journey, que se usa para referirse a viajes largos o difíciles y sobre todo en contextos literarios
un viaje a través del desierto
a journey across the desert
 ▶ travel, que es incontable, se puede usar para referirse a la actividad de viajar
Los viajes amplían los horizontes.
Travel broadens the mind
 ▶ voyage se usa para hablar de un viaje largo o difícil por mar
los viajes de Colón
the voyages of Columbus
 irse de viaje to go on a trip
 ¡buen viaje! have a good trip!

He saved enough money to buy (v) a small house.
I’m saving for a new car (n).

PS /piː ˈes/ UK  US  (= postscript)

Homework: writing (over 100 words), p. 114, ex. 2D

Monday, December 04, 2017

NB2 4/12/17

p. 35

ex. 8
a5, b5, c1, d2, e1, f2, g4, h5, i3

be about to do something
if someone is about to do something, or if something is about to happen, they will do it or it will happen very soon
 We were just about to leave when Jerry arrived.
 Work was about to start on a new factory building.

Homework: p. 35, grammar, exercises 9 & 10. P. 36, reading activity, 2, 3 & 4.



busy /ˈbɪzi/ UK  US   adjetivo (-sier, -siest)
1 ocupado -a
I'm very busy at the moment. Can I call you back?
Estoy muy ocupado en este momento. ¿Puedo llamarle luego?
The children were  busy with  their homework.
Los niños estaban ocupados haciendo los deberes.
2 (lleno de actividad) ajetreado -a, ocupado -a
I've had a really busy day.
Hoy he tenido un día muy ajetreado.

village /ˈvɪlɪdʒ/ UK  US  sustantivo

wife – wives


want /wɒnt/ UK  US  verbo & sustantivo
 •  verbo [transitivo]
1 querer
Do you want a drink?
¿Quieres tomar algo?
to want to do sth querer hacer algo
She wants to go home.
Quiere irse a casa.

I go to the cinema on Fridays

I love / like / enjoy / hate listening to music.
I need / want to go to the country

p.65, ex 8

have2 /həv, acentuado hæv/ UK  US  verbo [auxiliar & modal]

El modal  to have se usa en la estructura to have to do sth ( tener que hacer algo):

 I have to go and see my grandma.
 Tengo que ir a ver a mi abuela.
También se usa to have got to do sth, sobre todo en inglés británico. to have  y to have got  forman la negación y la interrogación de diferente manera:
 Do we have to do this exercise?/Have we got to do this exercise?
 ¿Tenemos que hacer este ejercicio?
 We don't have to go./We haven't got to go.
 No hace falta que vayamos.

I have a car / I have got a car
I don’t have any brother / I haven’t got any sister.
I haven’t any cousins
I have a shower

Another thing – other things